Part 5 - Miscellaneous Items
Howe, M.J.A., Ashworth, P., Blackmore, S. et al./British Psychological Society (1992) Subliminal Messages. British Psychological Society, Leicester.
Merikle, P.M. and Cheesman, J. (1987) Current status of research on subliminal perception. In M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson (Eds). Advance in Consumer Research, Vol.14, pp298-302. Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT.
Merikle, P.M., & Reingold, E.M. (1992). Measuring unconscious perceptual processes. In R. Bornstein & T. S. Pitman (Eds.), Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. New York: Guilford.
Moscovici, S. (1981) On social representations. In J.P. Forgas (Ed), Social cognition: Perspectives on everyday understanding. Academic Press, London.
Moscovici, S. (1984) The phenomenon of social representations. In R.M. Farr and S. Moscovici (Eds), Social Representations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Paris.
Saegert, J. (1979) Another look at subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.19, No.1, pp55-57.
Epley, N., Savitsky, K and Kachelski, R.A. (1999) What every Skeptic should know about Subliminal Persuasion. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol 23, No. 5, pp40-45, 58.
Moore, T.E. (1992a). Subliminal perception: Facts and fallacies. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 16 (Spring), 273-281.
Pratkanis, A.R. (1992) The cargo-cult science of subliminal persuasion. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.16 (Spring), pp260-272.
Ross, M.H. (1984) Getting below awareness. Advertising Age, December 17, 16ff.
Underwood, G. (1994) Subliminal perception on TV. Nature, Vol. 370, 14 July, p 103.
Various articles in the March, 1996 issue (Vol. 5, No. 3) of the Rutherford Magazine
Fletcher, J. (1988) The Guardian, June 7th.
Haberstroh, J. (1984) Can't ignore subliminal ad charges: Adfolk laugh, but student's listen. Advertising Age, September 17, 3 ff.
O'Toole, P. (1989) Those sexy ice cubes are back. Advertising Age, Oct.2, p26.
Stoddart, P. (1989). Article on TV commercials. The Observor, June 25th.
Academic Journal Articles
Bagley, G.S. and Dunlap, B.J. (1980) Subliminally embedded ads: A 'Turn on'? Southern Marketing Association Proceedings, pp296-298.
Baird, P. and Wilding, J. (1980) Individual differences in sensitivity to subliminally presented reinforcement. Cited in Dixon (1981).
Beatty, S.E. and Hawkins, D.I. (1989) Subliminal Stimulation: Some new data and interpretation. Journal of Advertising, Vol.18, No.3, pp4-8.
Blen, B. (1992) To Hear or Not to Hear: A Legal Analysis of Subliminal Communication Technology in the Arts. Rutgers Law Review, Vol 44:871-922.
Block, M.P. and Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985) Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.3, pp59-62.
Bornstein, R.F. (1989a) Subliminal Techniques as Propaganda Tools: Review and Critique. Journal of Mind and Behavior, Vol.10, No. 3, pp231-262.
Bornstein, R.F. (1989b) Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of Research, 1968-1987. Psychology Bulletin, Vol.106, No.2, pp265-289.
Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. and Galley, D.J. (1987) The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: Influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.53, No.6, pp1070-1079.
Caccavale, J.G., Wanty, T.C. III and Edell, J.A. (1979) Subliminal implants in advertisements: An experiment. Association for Consumer Research Proceedings, 9, pp418-423.
Chessman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1984) Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.36, pp387-395.
Cheesman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology, Vol.40, No. 4, pp343-367.
Cook, W.A. (1993) Lurking behind the ice cubes (Editorial). Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, pp7-8.
Cuperfain, R. and Clarke, T.K. (1985) A new perspective of subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.1, pp36-41.
Eagle, M., Wolitzky, D.L. and Klein, G.S. (1966) Imagery: Effect of a concealed figure in a stimulus. Science, 151, 837-9.
Eich, E., & Hyman, R. (1991). Subliminal self-help. In D. Druckman & R. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind's eye: Enhancing human performance. Washington, National Academy Press.
Fisher, C. (1954) Dreams and perception. The role of preconscious and primary modes of perception in dream formation. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 2, 389-445.
Fisher, C. (1957) A study of the preliminary stages of the construction of dreams and images. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 5, 5-60.
Fisher, C. (1960) Subliminal and supraliminal influences on dreams. Amer. J. Psychiat., 116, 1009-17.
Fisher, C. and Paul, I.H. (1959) The effect of subliminal visual stimulation on imagery and dreams. A validation study. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 7, 35-83.
Forster, P.M and Govier, E. (1978) Discrimination without awareness?, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol., 30, 282-95.
Fowler, C. A. (1986). An operational definition of conscious awareness must be responsible to subjective experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 33-35.
Gable, M. et al. (1987) An evaluation of subliminally embedded sexual stimuli in graphics. Journal of Advertising, Vol.16, No.1, pp 26-29.
George, S.G. and Jenning, L.B. (1975) Effect of Subliminal Stimuli on consumer behavior: Negative effect. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol 41 (Dec), pp 847-854.
Goldstein, M.J. and Barthol, R.P. (1960) Fantasy responses to subliminal stimuli. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 60, 22-6.
Glucksberg, S. (1982). Not seeing is believing: Perception without awareness [Review of Preconscious processing]. Contemporary Psychology, 270, 856-858.
Gratz, J.E. (1984) The ethics of subliminal communication. Journal of Business Ethics, 3, pp181-184.
Greenwald, A.G. (1992a). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist, 47, 766-779.
Haber, R. N. (1959) Public attitudes regarding subliminal advertising. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.23, pp291-293.
Hawkins, S.A. and Hoch, S.J. (1992) Low-involvement learning: Memory without evaluation. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.19 (Sept), pp212-225.
Henley, S.H.A. (1984) Unconscious perception re-visited: A comment on Merikle's (1982) paper. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, Vol.22, No.2, pp121-124.
Holender, D. (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 1-23
Hovseian, A. and Quatman, G. (1978) Effects of Subliminal Stimulation on Masculinity - Femininity Ratings of a Male model. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46 (Feb), pp 155-161.
Janiszewski, C. and Warlop, L. (1993) The influence of classical conditioning procedures on subsequent attention to the conditioned brand. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.20 (Sept), pp171-189.
Kelly, J.S. (1979) Subliminal embeds in print advertising: A challenge to advertising ethics. Journal of Advertising, Summer, p20-24.
Kelly, J.S. and Kessler, B.M. (1978) Subliminal seduction: Fact or fiction? Southern Marketing Association Proceedings.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987) The cognitive unconscious. Science, Vol.237, pp1445-1452.
Kilbourne, W.E., Painton, S. and Ridley, D. (1985) The effect of sexual embedding on responses to magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising, Vo.l.14, No.2, pp48-56.
Kragh, N. (1960) Pre-cognitive defensive organisation: Review, discussion and preliminary operational definitions. Acta Psychiat. Neurol. Scand., Vol.35, p190-206.
Kragh, N. (1962) Predictions of success of Danish attack divers by the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol.15, pp103-106.
McSweeney, F.K. and Brierley, C. (1984) Recent developments in Classical conditioning. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.11 (Sept), pp619-631.
Malamud, W. (1934) Dream analysis: its application in therapy and research in mental disease. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 31, 356-72.
Merikle, P.M. (1982) Unconscious perception revisited. Perception and Psychophysics, 31, pp298-301.
Merikle, P.M. (1983). Subliminal perception reaffirmed. [Review of Preconscious processing]. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 370, 324-326.
Merikle, P.M. (1984). Toward a definition of awareness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 449-450.
Merikle, P.M. and Cheesman, J. (1986) Consciousness is a 'subjective' state. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 42-43.
Miniard, P.W., Sirdeshmukh, D. and Innis, D.E. (1992) Peripheral persuasion and brand choice. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.19 (Sept), pp226-239.
Moore, T.E. (1982) Subliminal Advertising: What you see is what you get. Journal of Marketing, Vol.46 (Spring), pp 38-47.
Moore, T.E. (1988) The case against subliminal manipulation. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.5, No.4, pp297-316.
Poetzl, O. (1917) The relationship between experimentally induced dream images and indirect vision. Monogr. No. 7, Psychol. Issues, 2, 41-120 (1960).
Pratkanis, A.R. and Greenwald, A.G. (1988) Recent perspectives on unconscious processing: Still no marketing applications. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.5, No.4, pp337-353.
Rogers, M. and Smith, K.H. (1993) Public perceptions of subliminal advertising: Why practitioners shouldn't ignore this issue. Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, pp10-18.
Saegert, J. (1987) Why marketing should quit giving subliminal advertising the benefit of the doubt. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.4, No.2, pp107-120.
Schachter, D.L. (1987) Implicit memory; History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, Vol.13, pp501-518.
Schachter, D.L. (1992) Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach. American Psychologist, Vol.47, No.4, pp559-569.
Shimp, T.A, Stuart, E.W. and Engle, R.W. (1991) A program of classical conditioning experiments testing variations in the conditioned stimulus and context. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.18 (June), pp1-12.
Silverman, L.H. (1983) in Masling, J. (1983) The subliminal activation method: Overview and comprehensive listing of studies. Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories, Vol. 1. Analytic Press (LEA), Hillsdale, N.J.
Smith, G. (1990) The effect of advertising on juvenile smoking behaviour. International Journal of Advertising, Vol.9, pp57-79.
Spence, D.P. and Holland, B. (1962) The restricting effects of awareness: a paradox and an explanation. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 64, 163-74.
Synodinos, N.E. (1988) Subliminal stimulation: What does the public think about it? Current Issues & Research in Advertising, Vol.11, pp157-187.
Vokey, J.R. and Read, J.D. (1985) Subliminal messages: Between the devil and the media. American Psychologist, Vol.40, No. 11, pp1231-1239.
Wilson, W.R. (1979) Feeling more than we can know: Exposure effects without learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.37, pp811-821.
Worthington, A.G. (1961) Semantic generalization and the mechanism of subception. Austral. J. Psychol., 13, 206-14.
Zajonc, R.B. (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph, Vol.9, No.2 part2, pp1-27.
Zanot, E., Pincus, J.D. and Lamp, E.J. (1983) Public perceptions of subliminal advertising. Journal of Advertising, Vol.12, No.1, pp39-45.
Last Revised: 3rd January, 2003