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Part I : Specialist Books

ACTON.jpg (11184 bytes)Acton, M. (1997) Learning to Look at Paintings  Routledge, London.

Aitchison, J. (1999) Cutting Edge Advertising: How to Create the world's best print for brands in the 21st century Prentice Hall, Singapore.

Antonides, G. and Raaij, W.F. van.(1998) Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.




Antonides, G. and Raaij, W.F. van.(1999) Case Studies in Consumer Behaviour John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Atkinson, M. (1984) Our masters' voices : the language and and body language of politics. Methuen, London.

Aumont, J. (1997) The Image. British Film Institute Publishing, London.

Baker, A. and Boyd, T. (eds) (1997) Out of Bounds : Sports, Media, and the politics of identity Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indianapolis.



Banyard, P. and Hayes, N. (1994) Psychology: Theory and pplication. Chapman and Hall, London.

Barnicoat, J. (1972) Posters a Concise History Thames and Hudson, London.

Barry, A.M.S. (1997) Visual Intelligence : Perception, Image, and Manipulation in Visual Communication State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.

Becker, C. (Ed) (1994) The Subversive Imagination : Artists, Society and Societal Responsibility Routledge, New York and London.


Bettinghaus, E. (1994) Persuasive Communication (4th ed) Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. New York.

Beier, E. G. and Young, D.M. (1984) The Silent Language of Psychotherapy: Social Reinforcement of Unconscious Processes Aldine de Gruyter.

Berger, J.( 1972) Ways of Seeing BBC/Penguin Books, London.

Bignell, J. (1997) Media Semiotics : An Introduction Manchester University Press, Manchester.



Billig, M. (1999) Freudian Repression : Conversation creating the unconscious Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Blythe, J. (1997) The Essence of Consumer Behaviour Prentice Hall, Hemel Hempstead.

Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (1999) Contemporary Marketing Wired (9th Ed) The Dryden Press, Fort Worth.




Bornstein, R. and Pittman, T.S. (Eds.) (1992) Perception Without Awareness : Cognitive, clinical and social perspectives Guilford Press, New York[not illustrated]

Braham, B. (1986) The Graphic Arts Studio Manual. William Collins and Sons Co., London.

BRIERLEY.jpg (13363 bytes)Brierley, S. (1995) The Advertising Handbook. Routledge, London.

Bruce, V. & Young, A. (1998) In the Eye of the Beholder : The Science of Face Perception Oxford University Press.




Bull, P.E. (1987) Posture and Gesture. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Butterfield, L. (Ed) (1999) Excellence in Advertising : The IPA Guide to Good Practice (2nd Ed). IPA/ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford.

CAPUTO.jpg (8283 bytes)Caputi, J. (1988) The Age of Sex Crime. The Women's Press Ltd, London.



Cardwell, M., Clark, L. & Meldrum, C. (2000) Psychology for A Level. Collins Educational, London.

CAREY.jpg (7490 bytes)Carey, P. (1996) Media Law. Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Chan, C. (1989) China. The Guidebook Company Ltd., Hong Kong.




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Chancer, L.S. (1992) Sadomasochism in Everyday Life : The dynamics of power and powerlessness. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.

Channouf, A.Les Images Subliminales. Presses universitaires de France (Médecine et Société).

Channouf, A et Pichevin, M.-F., (1998) Le Pouvoir Subliminal: Influences non conscientes sur le comportement. Delachaux et Niestlé, Lausanne, Switzerland.



Cialdini, R.B. (2000) Influence: Science and Practice (4th ed) Allyn and Bacon.

CLARK.jpg (8920 bytes)Clark, E. (1988) The Want Makers : Inside the World of advertising Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Clark, T. (1997) Art and Propaganda in the Twentieth: The political image in the Age of Mass Culture Harry N. Abrams/ The Everyman Art Library (Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd., London)

CONGDONM.jpg (20090 bytes)Congdon-Martin, D. (1997) Camel Cigarette Collectibles : 1964-1995. Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Atglen, PA.



COOK.jpg (11388 bytes)Cook, G. (1992) The Discourse of Advertising Routledge, London.

cumming.jpg (22607 bytes)Cumming, R. (1999) Annotated Art.  Covent Garden Books (Dorling Kindersley), London.

Davidson, M. (1992) The consumerist manifesto: Advertising in post-modern times. Routledge, London. [not illustrated]

Davis, M.P. and Zerdin, D. (1996) Effective Use of Advertising Media: a practical handbook Random House Business, London.



DIXON.jpg (8280 bytes)Dixon, N.F. (1981) Preconscious Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Downing, J., Mohammadi, A and Sreberny-Mohammadi, A. (1995) Questioning the Media : A Critical Introduction. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.

Doyal, L. and Gough, I. (1991) A theory of human need. Macmillan, Basingstoke.




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DYER.jpg (12839 bytes)Dyer, G. (1982,1988) Advertising As Communication (Studies in Communication) Routledge, London.

East, R. (1990) Changing consumer behaviour. Cassell, London.

Empson.jpg (15550 bytes)Empson, J. (1993) Sleep and Dreaming (2nd ed). Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead, Herts.



Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. and Miniard, P.W. (1995) Consumer Behavior (8th Edition). The Dryden Press, Fort Worth.

Ernst, B. (1978) Der Zauberspiegel des M.C. Escher Taco, Berlin.

Eysenck, M.W. (1994) Perspectives on Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hove.




Eysenck, M.W. (1996) Simply Psychology. Psychology Press, Hove.

FAHS.jpg (7659 bytes)Fahs, J. (1996) Cigarette Confidential : The Unfiltered Truth about the Ultimate American Addiction. Berkley Books, New York.

Fairbairn, S. and Fairbairn, G. (1987) Psychology, Ethics and Change Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.





Fiske, S.T. and Taylor, S.E. (1991) Social Cognition (2nd ed) McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York.

FORCVILL.jpg (5820 bytes)Forceville, C. (1996) Pictorial Metaphor in Advertising Routledge, London.

Foxall, G. and Goldsmith, R.E. (1994) Consumer Psychology for Marketing Routledge, London.




Foxall, G.R., Goldsmith, RE and Brown, S. (1998) Consumer Psychology for Marketing (2nd edition). International Thomson Business Press, London.




Freud, S. All of the books illustrated on the page devoted to Freud and Freudian (psychodynamic) theories can be found on a separate bibliography. There are too many to list here.


Furnham, A.F. (1988) Lay Theories : Everyday Understanding of of problems in the social science . Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Gage, J. (1999) Color and Meaning: Art, Science, and Symbolism Thames and Hudson, London.

Gleitman, H. (1999) Psychology W.W. Norton & Co., New York.





GODDARD.jpg (12851 bytes)Goddard, A. (1998) The Language of Advertising : Written Texts The Language of Advertising. Routledge, London.

GOMBRICH.jpg (19924 bytes)Gombrich, E.H. (1959) Art and Illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation Phaidon, London.

Gordon, I.E. (1997) Theories of Visual Perception John Wiley and Sons,Chichester.




Gregory, R.L.  (1997) Eye and Brain: The psychology of seeing (3rd Ed). Oxford University Press.

Gregory, R.L. (1970) The intelligent eye Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.

GREGRYG.jpg (16823 bytes)Gregory, R.L. & Gombrich, E.H. (1973) (Eds) Illusion in nature and art. Duckworth, London.

Groome, D. et al (1999) An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology: Processes and Disorders Psychology Press Ltd., Hove, E.Sussex.


Gross, R.D. and Humphrey, P. (1993) Psychology : The Science of Mind and Behaviour (2nd ed) Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Gross, R.D. (1994) Key Studies in Psychology. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Gunter, B. (1997) Measuring bias on television University of Luton Press, Luton.

Gunter, B. and Furnham, A. (1998) Children As Consumers : A Psychological Perspective Routledge, London.


Haberbk.gif (15732 bytes)Haberstroh, J. (1994) Ice Cube Sex : The Truth About Subliminal Advertising. Cross Cultural Publications, Inc., Notre Dame, Ill.

Harris, R and Hatton, J. (1998) Murder a Cigarette: The Smoking Debate. Duckworth, London.

Harré, R., Clarke, D. and De Carlo, N. (1985) Motives & Mechanisms: An introduction to the psychology of action Methuen, London.

Hayes, N. (1998) Foundations of Psychology : An Introductory Text Thomas Nelson and Sons.




Hersey, G.L. (1996) The Evolution of Allure : Sexual selection from the Medici Venus to the Incredible Hulk MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

HILTS.jpg (12396 bytes)Hilts, P.J. (1996) Smoke Screen : The Truth Behind the Tobacco Industry Cover-up. Addison-Wes(ey Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, Mass.

Hoffman, D.D. (1998) Visual Intelligence: How We Create What we see W.W. Norton, New York.



Infact's 1998 People's Annual Report. The Apex Press, New York.

Jefkins, F. (1992) Advertising (5th edition) Made Simple Books/Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford.

Jhally, S. (1990) The Codes of Advertising : Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society Routledge, New York. [Not illustrated]


johnston.jpg (7982 bytes)Johnson, K.L. (19|8) Subliminal Selling Skills.  American Management Association (Amacom), New York.

Jones, B. (1999) The Official ITV F1 Grand Prix Guide 1999. Colour Library Direct.

Jones, J.P. (Ed) (2000) Advertising Organizations and Publications: A Resource Guide Sage Publications Inc. Thousand Oaks, Calif.



Jonides, J. and Rozin, P. (1986) Psychology : Study Guide to accompany Gleitman's Psychology W.W. Norton and company, New York.

Jowett, G.S. and O'Donnell, V. (1999) Propaganda and Persuasion (3rd ed). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Karle1.jpg (14698 bytes)Karle, H.W.A. and Boys, J.H. (1987) Hypnotherapy : A Practical Handbook Free Association Books, London.

Hypnotherapy : A Practical Handbook (Jan, 1996)



Keybk2s.gif (12706 bytes)Key, W.B. (1972) Subliminal Seduction. New American Library, New York.

Keybk3s.gif (10460 bytes)Key, W.B. (1976) Media Sexploitation. Signet Books/New American Library, New York.

Key, W.B. (1980) The Clam Plate Orgy. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. [Not illustrated]


Key, W. B. (1989) The Age of Manipulation : The Con in confidence, The sin in sincere. Madison Books, Lanham, Maryland.

Keybk1s.gif (13041 bytes)Key, W. B. (1992) Subliminal Adventures in Erotic Art. Branden Publishing Co. Inc., Boston.

Kilbourne, J. (1999) Deadly Persuasion: why women and girls must fight the addictive power of advertising. The Free Press ( A division of Simon and Schuster), New York.

Kilbourne, J. (2001) Can't Buy My Love.[Note: this is the paperback edition of Deadly Persuasion).



Klein, N. (2000) No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies Flamingo/Harper Collins, London.

KLEIN.jpg (9725 bytes)Klein, R. (1993) Cigarettes Are Sublime. Duke University Press, Durham, Nth. Carolina.




KLUGER.jpg (11725 bytes)Kluger, R. (1996) Ashes to Ashes : America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Lacey, N.(1999) Image and Representation : Key Concepts. St. Martin's Press, London.

Leek, M.E. (1995) The New Encyclopedia of Airbrush Techniques. Headline Publishing PLC, London.




Lester, P.M. (2000) Visual Communication: Images with messages Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA.




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Lewicki, P. (1986) Nonconscious Social Information Processing Academic Press, New York. [Not illustrated]

lucie-sm.jpg (13876 bytes)Lucie-Smith, E. (1997 Reprinted) Sexuality in Western Art Thames and Hudson, London.How to Make Any Product Irresistible. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Macklin, M.C. and Carlson, L. (Eds) (1999) Advertising to Children : Concepts and controversies


Males, M. (1999) Smoked : Why Joe Camel Is Still Smiling Common Courage Press.




Marchand, P. (1998) Marshall McLuhan : The Medium and the Messenger A Biography. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Mariotti, J. (1999) Smart Things to Know About Brands and Branding Capstone Publishing, Oxford/Capstone US, Dover, NH.

Marquand, D. (1988) The Unprincipled Society: New demands and old politics.Jonathon Cape, London.

Martin, T. (1999) Essential Surrealists. Dempsey Parr, London.




MATTHEW.jpg (16210 bytes)Matthews, M.S. & Poulsen, E.B. (1998) Frontpage 98: The Complete Reference.   Osborne/McGraw-Hill, Berkeley, Calif.

McQuail, D. (1994) McQuail's Mass Communication Theory Sage Publications, London.

McQuail, D. and Windahl, S. (1993) Communication Models : For the Study of Mass Communications Longman, Harlow.



Mecca, A.M., Smelser, N.J. and Vasconcellos, J. (Eds) (1989) The Social Importance of Self-Esteem University of California Press, Berkeley.

MESSARIS.jpg (9787 bytes)Messaris, P. (1997) Visual Persuasion : The Role of Images in Advertising Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Myers, G. (1994) Words in Ads. Arnold, London.

Meyers, W. (1984) The Image Makers: Secrets of successful advertising. Macmillan, London and Basingstoke.

Milburn, M.A. (1991) Persuasion and Politics : The Social Psychology of Public Opinion Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, Calif.



Murphy, J., John, M. and Brown, H. (1984) Dialogues and Debates in Social Psychology Lawrence Erlbaum, London, in association with the Open University .

Myers, K. (1986) Understains : the sense and seduction of advertising Comedia Publishing Group, London.[Not illustrated]



MYERS.jpg (13732 bytes)Myers, W. (1984) Words in Ad Macmillan, London.

N.E. Thing Enterprises (1994) Magic Eye II: 3D Illusions. Michael Joseph, London.

Norman, D.A. (1988) The Psychology of Everyday Things Basic Books, N.W.




Nye, R.D. (1999) Three Psychologies: Perspectives fom Freud, Skinner and Rogers. Wadsworth.

OGILVY.jpg (8857 bytes)Ogilvy, D. (1983) Ogilvy on Advertising Crown, New York.

oguinn.jpg (15580 bytes)O'Guinn, T.C. et al (1998) Advertising South Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio.




PACKARD.jpg (8078 bytes)Packard, V. (1957,1981) The Hidden Persuaders Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlsx.

Pashler, H. (1998) Attention (Studies in Cognition Series) Psychology Press, Hove, E.Sussex.

PATTRSON.jpg (7725 bytes)Patterson, P. & Wilkins, L. (1988) Media Ethics : Issues & Cases McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass.




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Peter, J.P. & Olson, J.C. (1998) Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy Strategy (5th edition) Irwin, Chicago.

Petrone, G. S. (1996) Tobacco Advertising : The Great Seduction with values. Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Atglen, PA.

Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1996) Attitudes and Persuasion : Classic and Contemporary Approaches Westview Press.



Pratkanis, A. and Aronson, E. (1991) Age of Propaganda : The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion H.Freeman and Company, New York.

Prins.jpg (13110 bytes)Prins, H. (1990) Bizarre Behaviours: Boundaries of Psychiatric Disorder  Routledge, London.

Pringle, P. (1998) Cornered : Big Tobacco at the Bar of Justice Henry Holt & Company

Protz, R. (1978) Pulling a fast one: What the brewers have done to your beer. Pluto Press, London.



Protz, R. (1999) The Real Ale Almanac. Neil Wilson Publishing, Glasgow/CAMRA.

Radford, J. and Govier, E. (1980) A Textbook of Psychology. Sheldon Press, London.

Reber, A.S. (1995) The The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlsx.

Richards, B. (1994) Disciplines of delight: The psychoanalysis of popular culture. Free Association Books, London.



cover of the book Incredible Optical IllusionsRodgers, N. ( )Incredible Optical Illusions: A Spectacular Journey through the world of the Impossible.

Rogers, P. and Baldwin, S. (1999) Controlled or Reduced Smoking. Greenwood Press,Westport, Connecticut.

Ross, L. and Nisbett, R.E. (1991) The Person and the Situation: Perspectives of Social Psychology McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York.



rothenst.jpg (18012 bytes)Rothenstein, J. and Gooding, M. (1999)   The Playful Eye: An Album of Visual Delight Redstone Press, London.

Sala, S.D. (1999) Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions about the Mind and Brain John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

saundrs.jpg (19527 bytes)Saunders, D. (1994) The World's Best Advertising Photography B.T. Batsford, London.



SAUNDERS.jpg (15265 bytes)Saunders, D. (1996) Sex in Advertising (Best Ads) B.T. Batsford, London.

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Saundrs3.jpg (21769 bytes)Saunders, D. (1999) 20th Century Advertising Carlton Books, London.

Schiffman, L.G. and Kanuk, L.L. (1987) Consumer Behavior(3rd Edition) Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Severin, W.J. and Tankard, J.W. (1992) Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses (3rd ed) Longman, New York.



Shaw, J. (1999) Corporate Cons: How the business community is taking consumers for a ride... Management Books 2000, Chalford, Gloucestershire.

SHEPARD.jpg (11733 bytes)Shepard, R. N. (1990) Mind Sights : Original Visual Illusions, W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.

Shimp, T.A. (2000) Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications The Dryden Press, Fort Worth.



Singer, J.L. (Ed) (1990) Repression and Dissociation: Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology and Health The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

SIVULKA.jpg (15502 bytes)Sivulka, J. (1998) Soap, Sex, and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American Advertising Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA.

soderhlm.jpg (11290 bytes)Soderholm, C.E. (1997) How 10% of the people get 90% of the pie.  St. Martin's Griffin, New York.

Sodorow, L.M. (1993) Psychology (2nd Ed) Brown & Benchmark, Madison, Wisc.




SOLOMN2.jpg (16481 bytes)Solomon, M.R. (1996) Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being   Prentice-Hall International, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.




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Solomon.jpg (9153 bytes)Solomon, M.R. et al. (1999) Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective. Prentice Hall Europe.

Sommerhoff, G. (2000) Understanding Consciousness : Its function and Brain Processes. Sage Publications, London.

Southgate, P. (1995) Total Branding by Design. Kogan Page, London.




Sparks, C. with Reading, A. (1998) Communism, Capitalism and the Mass Media Sage Publications, London.

STNZWSKI.jpg (7768 bytes)Staniszewski, M.A. (1995) Believing Is Seeing : Creating the Culture of Art Penguin Books, New York.

Starkey, M. (1989) Born to Shop. Monarch, Eastbourne.



Sullivan, L. (1998) Hey, Whipple, Squeeze This : A Guide to Creating Great Ads John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Sutherland, M. & Sylvester, A.K. (2000) Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer: What works, what doesn't and why (2nd edition)

TAYLORE.jpg (10096 bytes)Taylor, E. (1990) Subliminal Communication : Emperor's Clothes or Panacea? Just Another Reality Publishing, Las Vegas.


TAYLORE2.jpg (11456 bytes)Taylor, E. (1988 ) Subliminal Learning : An Eclectic Approach.  RK Book, Las Vegas.

TAYLOR.jpg (10623 bytes)Taylor, P. (1984) Smoke Ring: The politics of tobacco. The Bodley Head, London.

Temple, C. (1993) The Brain: An Introduction to the Psychology of the Human Brain and Behaviour. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.



Thorne, T. (1997) Dictionary of Contemporay Slang: The newest slang terms explained. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.


Toop, A. (1992) European Sales Promotion: Great campaigns in action. Kogan page, London.

TWITCHEL.jpg (11601 bytes)Twitchell, J.B. (1996) Adcult USA: The Triumph of Advertising in American Culture Columbia University Press, New York.



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UNDRWOOD.jpg (8138 bytes)Underwood, G. (1996) Implicit Cognition. Oxford University Press.

Valentine, E.R. (1992) Conceptual issues in psychology (2nd ed) Routledge, London.

Veeder<�a>, G.K. (1975/1980) Influence of Subliminal Suggestion on 2 films Arno Press, New York. [Not illustrated]



Wade, C. and Tavris, C. (1999) Invitation to Psychology. Addison Wesley Publishing Company

WADE.jpg (13744 bytes)Wade, N. (1990) Visual Allusions : Pictures of Perception LEA, Hillsdale, N.J.

Wainer, H. (1997) Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. Copernicus/Springer-Verlag, New York.


WARD.jpg (20515 bytes)Ward, D. (1988) Illustration for Advertising. Macdonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd, London.

WE�NICK.jpg (10961 bytes)Wernick, A. (1991) Promotional Culture : Advertising, ideology and symbolic expression Sage Publications, London.

Weatherill, R. (Ed.)(1999) The Death Drive : New Life for a Dead Subject. Rebus Press, London.




White, R. (2000) Advertising (4th edition) McGraw Hill, Maidenhead.

Wilkie, W.L. (1994) Consumer Behavior (3rd Edition) John Wiley and Sons, New York.

WILLATS.jpg (15052 bytes)Willats, J. (1997) Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.



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Williams, T.G. (1982) Consumer Behavior: fundamentals and strategies. West Publishing Co., St. Paul. [Not illustrated]

WILLIMSN.jpg (8203 bytes)Williamson, J. (1978) Decoding Advertisements : Ideology and Meaning in Advertisements Marian Boyars, New York.

Williamson, J. (1986) Consuming Passions: The Dynamics of Popular Culture. Marion Boyars, London.[not illustrated]


Wrightsman, L.S. (1992) Assumptions About Human Nature: implications for Researchers and Practitioners (2nd ed) Sage Publications, Newbury Park.

Zikmund, W.G. & d'Amica, M. (1995) Effective Marketing : Creating and Keeping Customers South Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Zimbardo, P. et al. (1995) Psychology: A European Text. HarperCollins, London.




Zimbardo, P.G. and Leippe, M.R. (1991) Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc. New York.




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Darlington Drinker No. 131. Darlington CAMRA


Ewe 'r' The magazine from The Black Sheep Brewery.


Free Choice: Standing up for smokers.





bps.jpg (6815 bytes)Howe, M.J.A., Ashworth, P., Blackmore, S. et al./British Psychological Society (1992) Subliminal Messages. British Psychological Society, Leicester.



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Book Chapters

Merikle, P.M. and Cheesman, J. (1987) Current status of research on subliminal perception. In M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson (Eds). Advance in Consumer Research, Vol.14, pp298-302. Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT.

Merikle, P.M., & Reingold, E.M. (1992). Measuring unconscious perceptual processes. In R. Bornstein & T. S. Pitman (Eds.), Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives.  New York: Guilford.

Moscovici, S. (1981) On social representations. In J.P. Forgas (Ed), Social cognition: Perspectives on everyday understanding. Academic Press, London.

Moscovici, S. (1984) The phenomenon of social representations. In R.M. Farr and S. Moscovici (Eds), Social Representations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Paris.

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Magazine Articles

Epley, N., Savitsky, K and Kachelski, R.A. (1999) What every Skeptic should know about Subliminal Persuasion.  Skeptical Inquirer, Vol 23, No. 5, pp40-45, 58. 

Moore, TMoore, T.E. (1992a). Subliminal perception: Facts and fallacies. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 16 (Spring), 273-281.*


Pratkanis, A.R. (1992) Pratkanis, A.R. (1992) The cargo-cult science of subliminal persuasion. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 16 (Spring), pp260-272. *

*Note: a more recent article from the Skeptical Inquirer expresses a less skeptical viewpoint but this article is not yet available on-line.

Ross, M.H. (1984) Getting below awareness. Advertising Age, December 17, 16ff.

Underwood, G. (1994) Subliminal perception on TV. Nature, Vol. 370, 14 July, p 103.

Ruthfrd2.jpg (11855 bytes)Various articles in the March, 1996 issue (Vol. 5, No. 3) of the Rutherford Magazine


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Newspaper Articles

Fletcher, J. (1988) The Guardian, June 7th.

Haberstroh, J. (1984) Can't ignore subliminal ad charges: Adfolk laugh, but student's listen. Advertising Age, September 17, 3 ff.

O'Toole, P. (1989) Those sexy ice cubes are back. Advertising Age, Oct.2, p26.

Stoddart, P. (1989). Article on TV commercials. The Observor, June 25th.

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Conference Papers

Greenwald, A.G. (1992b, August). Subliminal semantic activation and subliminal snake oil. In M.N. Eagle (Chair), Subliminal Influence: For Better or For Naught? Symposium conducted at the 100th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington.

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Academic Journal Articles

Bagley, G.S. and Dunlap, B.J. (1980) Subliminally embedded ads: A 'Turn on'? Southern Marketing Association Proceedings, pp296-298.

Baird, P. and Wilding, J. (1980) Individual differences in sensitivity to subliminally presented reinforcement. Cited in Dixon (1981).

Beatty, S.E. and Hawkins, D.I. (1989) Subliminal Stimulation: Some new data and interpretation. Journal of Advertising, Vol.18, No.3, pp4-8.

Blen, B. (1992) To Hear or Not to Hear: A Legal Analysis of Subliminal Communication Technology in the Arts. Rutgers Law Review, Vol 44:871-922.

Block, M.P. and Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985) Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.3, pp59-62.

Bornstein, R.F. (1989a) Subliminal Techniques as Propaganda Tools: Review and Critique. Journal of Mind and Behavior, Vol.10, No. 3, pp231-262.

Bornstein, R.F. (1989b) Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of Research, 1968-1987. Psychology Bulletin, Vol.106, No.2, pp265-289.

Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. and Galley, D.J. (1987) The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: Influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.53, No.6, pp1070-1079.

Caccavale, J.G., Wanty, T.C. III and Edell, J.A. (1979) Subliminal implants in advertisements: An experiment. Association for Consumer Research Proceedings, 9, pp418-423.

Chessman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1984) Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.36, pp387-395.

Cheesman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology, Vol.40, No. 4, pp343-367.

Cook, W.A. (1993) Lurking behind the ice cubes (Editorial). Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, pp7-8.

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