*Note that book cover illustrations may differ from that currently offered and US and UK versions often have different covers.
Part I : Specialist Books
Acton, M. (1997) Learning to Look at Paintings Routledge, London.
Bignell, J. (1997) Media Semiotics : An Introduction Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Bornstein, R. and Pittman, T.S. (Eds.) (1992) Perception Without Awareness : Cognitive, clinical and social perspectives Guilford Press, New York[not illustrated]
Brierley, S. (1995) The Advertising Handbook. Routledge, London.
Caputi, J. (1988) The Age of Sex Crime. The Women's Press Ltd, London.
Carey, P. (1996) Media Law. Sweet & Maxwell, London.
Channouf, A et Pichevin, M.-F., (1998) Le Pouvoir Subliminal: Influences non conscientes sur le comportement. Delachaux et Niestlé, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Cialdini, R.B. (2000) Influence: Science and Practice (4th ed) Allyn and Bacon.
Clark, E. (1988) The Want Makers : Inside the World of advertising Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Congdon-Martin, D. (1997) Camel Cigarette Collectibles : 1964-1995. Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Atglen, PA.
Cook, G. (1992) The Discourse of Advertising Routledge, London.
Davidson, M. (1992) The consumerist manifesto: Advertising in post-modern times. Routledge, London. [not illustrated]
Dixon, N.F. (1981) Preconscious Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Dyer, G. (1982,1988) Advertising As Communication (Studies in Communication) Routledge, London.
Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. and Miniard, P.W. (1995) Consumer Behavior (8th Edition). The Dryden Press, Fort Worth.
Fahs, J. (1996) Cigarette Confidential : The Unfiltered Truth about the Ultimate American Addiction. Berkley Books, New York.
Forceville, C. (1996) Pictorial Metaphor in Advertising Routledge, London.
Freud, S. All of the books illustrated on the page devoted to Freud and Freudian (psychodynamic) theories can be found on a separate bibliography. There are too many to list here.
Goddard, A. (1998) The Language of Advertising : Written Texts The Language of Advertising. Routledge, London.
Gombrich, E.H. (1959) Art and Illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation Phaidon, London.
Gregory, R.L. & Gombrich, E.H. (1973) (Eds) Illusion in nature and art. Duckworth, London.
Haberstroh, J. (1994) Ice Cube Sex : The Truth About Subliminal Advertising. Cross Cultural Publications, Inc., Notre Dame, Ill.
Hilts, P.J. (1996) Smoke Screen : The Truth Behind the Tobacco Industry Cover-up. Addison-Wes(ey Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, Mass.
Jhally, S. (1990) The Codes of Advertising : Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society Routledge, New York. [Not illustrated]
Hypnotherapy : A Practical Handbook (Jan, 1996)
Key, W.B. (1972) Subliminal Seduction. New American Library, New York.
Key, W.B. (1980) The Clam Plate Orgy. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. [Not illustrated]
Key, W. B. (1992) Subliminal Adventures in Erotic Art. Branden Publishing Co. Inc., Boston.
Kilbourne, J. (2001) Can't Buy My Love.[Note: this is the paperback edition of Deadly Persuasion).
Klein, R. (1993) Cigarettes Are Sublime. Duke University Press, Durham, Nth. Carolina.
Kluger, R. (1996) Ashes to Ashes : America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Lewicki, P. (1986) Nonconscious Social Information Processing Academic Press, New York. [Not illustrated]
Matthews, M.S. & Poulsen, E.B. (1998) Frontpage 98: The Complete Reference. Osborne/McGraw-Hill, Berkeley, Calif.
Messaris, P. (1997) Visual Persuasion : The Role of Images in Advertising Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Myers, G. (1994) Words in Ads. Arnold, London.
Myers, K. (1986) Understains : the sense and seduction of advertising Comedia Publishing Group, London.[Not illustrated]
Myers, W. (1984) Words in Ad Macmillan, London.
Ogilvy, D. (1983) Ogilvy on Advertising Crown, New York.
O'Guinn, T.C. et al (1998) Advertising South Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Packard, V. (1957,1981) The Hidden Persuaders Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlsx.
Patterson, P. & Wilkins, L. (1988) Media Ethics : Issues & Cases McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass.
Reber, A.S. (1995) The The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlsx.
Saunders, D. (1996) Sex in Advertising (Best Ads) B.T. Batsford, London.
An animated version of this cover is shown below.
Shepard, R. N. (1990) Mind Sights : Original Visual Illusions, W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.
Sivulka, J. (1998) Soap, Sex, and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American Advertising Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA.
Soderholm, C.E. (1997) How 10% of the people get 90% of the pie. St. Martin's Griffin, New York.
Solomon, M.R. (1996) Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being Prentice-Hall International, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Solomon, M.R. et al. (1999) Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective. Prentice Hall Europe.
Staniszewski, M.A. (1995) Believing Is Seeing : Creating the Culture of Art Penguin Books, New York.
Sutherland, M. & Sylvester, A.K. (2000) Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer: What works, what doesn't and why (2nd edition)
Taylor, E. (1990) Subliminal Communication : Emperor's Clothes or Panacea? Just Another Reality Publishing, Las Vegas.
Taylor, P. (1984) Smoke Ring: The politics of tobacco. The Bodley Head, London.
Twitchell, J.B. (1996) Adcult USA: The Triumph of Advertising in American Culture Columbia University Press, New York.
Underwood, G. (1996) Implicit Cognition. Oxford University Press.
Valentine, E.R. (1992) Conceptual issues in psychology (2nd ed) Routledge, London.
Wade, N. (1990) Visual Allusions : Pictures of Perception LEA, Hillsdale, N.J.
Ward, D. (1988) Illustration for Advertising. Macdonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd, London.Wernick, A. (1991) Promotional Culture : Advertising, ideology and symbolic expression Sage Publications, London.
Wilkie, W.L. (1994) Consumer Behavior (3rd Edition) John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Willats, J. (1997) Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Williams, T.G. (1982) Consumer Behavior: fundamentals and strategies. West Publishing Co., St. Paul. [Not illustrated]
Williamson, J. (1978) Decoding Advertisements : Ideology and Meaning in Advertisements Marian Boyars, New York.
Williamson, J. (1986) Consuming Passions: The Dynamics of Popular Culture. Marion Boyars, London.[not illustrated]
Howe, M.J.A., Ashworth, P., Blackmore, S. et al./British Psychological Society (1992) Subliminal Messages. British Psychological Society, Leicester.
Merikle, P.M. and Cheesman, J. (1987) Current status of research on subliminal perception. In M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson (Eds). Advance in Consumer Research, Vol.14, pp298-302. Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT.
Merikle, P.M., & Reingold, E.M. (1992). Measuring unconscious perceptual processes. In R. Bornstein & T. S. Pitman (Eds.), Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. New York: Guilford.
Moscovici, S. (1981) On social representations. In J.P. Forgas (Ed), Social cognition: Perspectives on everyday understanding. Academic Press, London.
Moscovici, S. (1984) The phenomenon of social representations. In R.M. Farr and S. Moscovici (Eds), Social Representations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Paris.
Epley, N., Savitsky, K and Kachelski, R.A. (1999) What every Skeptic should know about Subliminal Persuasion. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol 23, No. 5, pp40-45, 58.
Underwood, G. (1994) Subliminal perception on TV. Nature, Vol. 370, 14 July, p 103.
Various articles in the March, 1996 issue (Vol. 5, No. 3) of the Rutherford Magazine
Fletcher, J. (1988) The Guardian, June 7th.
Haberstroh, J. (1984) Can't ignore subliminal ad charges: Adfolk laugh, but student's listen. Advertising Age, September 17, 3 ff.
O'Toole, P. (1989) Those sexy ice cubes are back. Advertising Age, Oct.2, p26.
Stoddart, P. (1989). Article on TV commercials. The Observor, June 25th.
Academic Journal Articles
Bagley, G.S. and Dunlap, B.J. (1980) Subliminally embedded ads: A 'Turn on'? Southern Marketing Association Proceedings, pp296-298.
Baird, P. and Wilding, J. (1980) Individual differences in sensitivity to subliminally presented reinforcement. Cited in Dixon (1981).
Beatty, S.E. and Hawkins, D.I. (1989) Subliminal Stimulation: Some new data and interpretation. Journal of Advertising, Vol.18, No.3, pp4-8.
Blen, B. (1992) To Hear or Not to Hear: A Legal Analysis of Subliminal Communication Technology in the Arts. Rutgers Law Review, Vol 44:871-922.
Block, M.P. and Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985) Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.3, pp59-62.
Bornstein, R.F. (1989a) Subliminal Techniques as Propaganda Tools: Review and Critique. Journal of Mind and Behavior, Vol.10, No. 3, pp231-262.
Bornstein, R.F. (1989b) Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of Research, 1968-1987. Psychology Bulletin, Vol.106, No.2, pp265-289.
Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. and Galley, D.J. (1987) The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: Influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.53, No.6, pp1070-1079.
Caccavale, J.G., Wanty, T.C. III and Edell, J.A. (1979) Subliminal implants in advertisements: An experiment. Association for Consumer Research Proceedings, 9, pp418-423.
Chessman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1984) Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.36, pp387-395.
Cheesman, J. and Merikle, P.M. (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology, Vol.40, No. 4, pp343-367.
Cook, W.A. (1993) Lurking behind the ice cubes (Editorial). Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, pp7-8.
Cuperfain, R. and Clarke, T.K. (1985) A new perspective of subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.1, pp36-41.
Eagle, M., Wolitzky, D.L. and Klein, G.S. (1966) Imagery: Effect of a concealed figure in a stimulus. Science, 151, 837-9.
Eich, E., & Hyman, R. (1991). Subliminal self-help. In D. Druckman & R. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind's eye: Enhancing human performance. Washington, National Academy Press.
Fisher, C. (1954) Dreams and perception. The role of preconscious and primary modes of perception in dream formation. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 2, 389-445.
Fisher, C. (1957) A study of the preliminary stages of the construction of dreams and images. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 5, 5-60.
Fisher, C. (1960) Subliminal and supraliminal influences on dreams. Amer. J. Psychiat., 116, 1009-17.
Fisher, C. and Paul, I.H. (1959) The effect of subliminal visual stimulation on imagery and dreams. A validation study. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Ass., 7, 35-83.
Forster, P.M and Govier, E. (1978) Discrimination without awareness?, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol., 30, 282-95.
Fowler, C. A. (1986). An operational definition of conscious awareness must be responsible to subjective experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 33-35.
Gable, M. et al. (1987) An evaluation of subliminally embedded sexual stimuli in graphics. Journal of Advertising, Vol.16, No.1, pp 26-29.
George, S.G. and Jenning, L.B. (1975) Effect of Subliminal Stimuli on consumer behavior: Negative effect. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol 41 (Dec), pp 847-854.
Goldstein, M.J. and Barthol, R.P. (1960) Fantasy responses to subliminal stimuli. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 60, 22-6.
Glucksberg, S. (1982). Not seeing is believing: Perception without awareness [Review of Preconscious processing]. Contemporary Psychology, 270, 856-858.
Gratz, J.E. (1984) The ethics of subliminal communication. Journal of Business Ethics, 3, pp181-184.
Greenwald, A.G. (1992a). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist, 47, 766-779.
Haber, R. N. (1959) Public attitudes regarding subliminal advertising. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.23, pp291-293.
Hawkins, S.A. and Hoch, S.J. (1992) Low-involvement learning: Memory without evaluation. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.19 (Sept), pp212-225.
Henley, S.H.A. (1984) Unconscious perception re-visited: A comment on Merikle's (1982) paper. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, Vol.22, No.2, pp121-124.
Holender, D. (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 1-23
Hovseian, A. and Quatman, G. (1978) Effects of Subliminal Stimulation on Masculinity - Femininity Ratings of a Male model. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46 (Feb), pp 155-161.
Janiszewski, C. and Warlop, L. (1993) The influence of classical conditioning procedures on subsequent attention to the conditioned brand. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.20 (Sept), pp171-189.
Kelly, J.S. (1979) Subliminal embeds in print advertising: A challenge to advertising ethics. Journal of Advertising, Summer, p20-24.
Kelly, J.S. and Kessler, B.M. (1978) Subliminal seduction: Fact or fiction? Southern Marketing Association Proceedings.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987) The cognitive unconscious. Science, Vol.237, pp1445-1452.
Kilbourne, W.E., Painton, S. and Ridley, D. (1985) The effect of sexual embedding on responses to magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising, Vo.l.14, No.2, pp48-56.
Kragh, N. (1960) Pre-cognitive defensive organisation: Review, discussion and preliminary operational definitions. Acta Psychiat. Neurol. Scand., Vol.35, p190-206.
Kragh, N. (1962) Predictions of success of Danish attack divers by the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol.15, pp103-106.
McSweeney, F.K. and Brierley, C. (1984) Recent developments in Classical conditioning. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.11 (Sept), pp619-631.
Malamud, W. (1934) Dream analysis: its application in therapy and research in mental disease. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 31, 356-72.
Merikle, P.M. (1982) Unconscious perception revisited. Perception and Psychophysics, 31, pp298-301.
Merikle, P.M. (1983). Subliminal perception reaffirmed. [Review of Preconscious processing]. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 370, 324-326.
Merikle, P.M. (1984). Toward a definition of awareness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 449-450.
Merikle, P.M. and Cheesman, J. (1986) Consciousness is a 'subjective' state. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 42-43.
Miniard, P.W., Sirdeshmukh, D. and Innis, D.E. (1992) Peripheral persuasion and brand choice. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.19 (Sept), pp226-239.
Moore, T.E. (1982) Subliminal Advertising: What you see is what you get. Journal of Marketing, Vol.46 (Spring), pp 38-47.
Moore, T.E. (1988) The case against subliminal manipulation. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.5, No.4, pp297-316.
Poetzl, O. (1917) The relationship between experimentally induced dream images and indirect vision. Monogr. No. 7, Psychol. Issues, 2, 41-120 (1960).
Pratkanis, A.R. and Greenwald, A.G. (1988) Recent perspectives on unconscious processing: Still no marketing applications. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.5, No.4, pp337-353.
Rogers, M. and Smith, K.H. (1993) Public perceptions of subliminal advertising: Why practitioners shouldn't ignore this issue. Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, pp10-18.
Saegert, J. (1979) Another look at subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.19, No.1, pp55-57.
Saegert, J. (1987) Why marketing should quit giving subliminal advertising the benefit of the doubt. Psychology and Marketing, Vol.4, No.2, pp107-120.
Schachter, D.L. (1987) Implicit memory; History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, Vol.13, pp501-518.
Schachter, D.L. (1992) Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach. American Psychologist, Vol.47, No.4, pp559-569.
Shimp, T.A, Stuart, E.W. and Engle, R.W. (1991) A program of classical conditioning experiments testing variations in the conditioned stimulus and context. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.18 (June), pp1-12.
Silverman, L.H. (1983) in Masling, J. (1983) The subliminal activation method: Overview and comprehensive listing of studies. Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories, Vol. 1. Analytic Press (LEA), Hillsdale, N.J.
Smith, G. (1990) The effect of advertising on juvenile smoking behaviour. International Journal of Advertising, Vol.9, pp57-79.
Spence, D.P. and Holland, B. (1962) The restricting effects of awareness: a paradox and an explanation. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 64, 163-74.
Synodinos, N.E. (1988) Subliminal stimulation: What does the public think about it? Current Issues & Research in Advertising, Vol.11, pp157-187.
Vokey, J.R. and Read, J.D. (1985) Subliminal messages: Between the devil and the media. American Psychologist, Vol.40, No. 11, pp1231-1239.
Wilson, W.R. (1979) Feeling more than we can know: Exposure effects without learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.37, pp811-821.
Worthington, A.G. (1961) Semantic generalization and the mechanism of subception. Austral. J. Psychol., 13, 206-14.
Zajonc, R.B. (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph, Vol.9, No.2 part2, pp1-27.
Zanot, E., Pincus, J.D. and Lamp, E.J. (1983) Public perceptions of subliminal advertising. Journal of Advertising, Vol.12, No.1, pp39-45.
Last Revised: 3rd January, 2003